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The etymology of coffee
Coffee is a black beverage that contains caffeine and is obtained from roasted and ground coffee beans. Coffee beans are the fruits of coffee trees in the family Rubiaceae, genus Coffea, with two more important varieties: Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta (Coffea canephora). Coffea arabica provides the varieties with the smoothest flavors, while Coffea robusta is more bitter and less aromatic. The quality of the coffee is influenced by the place of cultivation, storage and the roasting process of the coffee beans.
Coffee is a black liquid, it is bitter and slightly acidic, having a stimulating effect on humans due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks and can be consumed in different forms (eg espresso or cappuccino). It is usually consumed as a hot drink, but iced coffee is a popular alternative. Some studies indicate that it has a beneficial effect on adults, but long-term studies have not been able to prove this due to their poor quality.
The earliest credible information on coffee consumption dates back to the 15th century in Yemen, the Arabian Peninsula. In those regions, coffee beans were first roasted and consumed in a similar way to today. The origin of coffee beans is believed to be from the region of Ethiopia, North Africa.
In 2016, Brazil was the world's largest producer of coffee beans, which translates into a production of one-third of all coffee produced worldwide.
In(1673) coho; Ovington (1690), coffee, and Valentijn (1726), coffee. And from the two examples given by Colonel Prideaux, we shall see that Jourdain (1609) uses cohoo, and Revett (1609) cohoo
In Foster's book English Factories in India (1618-1621, 1622-1623, 1624-1629)  the following evolution of the word "coffee" appears: cowha (1619), cowhe, couha (1621), coffa (1628) .
For other languages, the earliest European mention is by Rauwolf, Aleppo, 573. He used the form chaube. Prospero Alpini (1580) used caova; Paludanus (1598) chaoua; Pyrard de Laval (1610) cahoots; P. Della Valle (1615) cahue; Jac. Bontius (1631) caveah, and Journal d'Antoine Galland (1673) caveah. The English used certain distinct forms, such as cohu, coho, coffao, coffao, copha, coffee, which differed from the more correct transliteration in other languages.
In 1610 the Portuguese Jew Pedro Teixeira (in the Hakluyt Society edition of his Travels) used the word kavàh.
Interferences from these transition forms appear to be:
1. The word found its way into European languages from both Turkish and Arabic.
2. The English forms (which have a stronger stress on the first syllable) have ŏ instead of ă, and f instead of h.
3. The forms in other languages are unaccented and have no h. The original v or w (or labialized u) is retained or changed to f.
It can therefore be stated that the main reason for the existence of two distinct types of spelling is the omission of h in languages with the unstressed form, and the conversion of h to f in case of strong stress in the languages with the stressed form. Such a transformation often occurs in Turkish. For example, silah dar in Persian (which is a highly accented language) becomes zilif dar in Turkish. In the languages of India, on the other hand, although the aspirated forms are usually very clearly pronounced, the word qāhvāh is pronounced kaiva by the less educated classes, in consequence of the syllables being equally stressed.
From the point of view of French etymologists, Jardin opines that, regarding the etymology of the word coffee, scholars do not agree and probably never will. Dufour says that this word is derived from caouhe, a name given by the Turks to a drink made from coffee seeds. Chevalier d'Arvieux, the French consul at Alet, Savary, and Trevoux, in his dictionary regards the word coffee as coming from the Arabic, from the word cahoueh or quaweh, which signifies to give vigor or strength, because, says d'Arvieux, the effect its most prominent is to fortify and strengthen.
Tavernier fights this opinion. Moseley attributes the origin of coffee to the word kaffa. Sylvestre de Sacy, in the Arabic Chrestomancy, published in 1806, believes that the word kahwa, synonymous with makli, roasted in a stove, could very well be the etymology of the word coffee. D'Alembert, in his encyclopedic dictionary, spells the word as caffé. Jardin concludes that whatever the origin of these different etymologies, it remains an established fact that the respective word coffee comes from an Arabic word, be it kahua, kahoueh, kaffa, or kahwa, and that the peoples who adopted the drink modified with all the Arabic word to match their pronunciation. This is demonstrated by how the word is spelled in various modern languages:
English, coffee, French, café; bangs, coffee; German, kaffee (coffee tree, kaffeebaum); Dutch, koffie (coffee tree, koffieboonen); Danish, kaffe; Finnish, kahvi; Magyar, kavé; bohemian, kava; Polish, kawa; Romanian, coffee; Croatian, kafa; Serbian, kava; Russian, kophe; Swedish, kaffe; Spanish, café; Basque, kaffia; Italian, caffè; Portuguese, café; Latin (scientific), coffea; Turkish, kahué; Greek, kaféo; Arabic, qahwah (coffee bean, good); Persian, qéhvé (coffee bean, good); Annamite, ca-phé; Cambodian, kafé; Tamil, kapi-kottai or kopi; Chinese, kia-fey, teoutsé; Japanese, kéhi; Malay, kawa, koppi; Abyssinian, Bonn; esperanto, kafva
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