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Roasting, also called torrefaction (French: torrefaction), is a thermal process that transforms green coffee beans into dark brown, aromatic beans. Roasting causes physical changes in the coffee beans: the weight is reduced by 16%, it doubles in volume, the essential oils from the coffee beans are released, substances that ultimately give the coffee its specific color, aroma, perfume, taste and flavor. The roasting process is overseen by tasters.
The industrial roasting of coffee beans is carried out in special facilities for roasting the beans, where the duration and degree of roasting are automatically regulated. The optimal roasting temperature is reached at 200-250 °C, when the beans show a dark brown color similar to mahogany wood. When the desired roasting point is reached, the coffee beans are transferred to special sieves, where they are quickly cooled to a temperature of 40-60 °C.
Cooling is done with circulating air or water. Air cooling takes longer and is more expensive, but has the advantage that the coffee beans do not absorb water. Also, the beans are in constant motion and can release the temperature slowly, keeping most of their aromatic substances.
Roasted coffee cannot be stored for a long time, so it is immediately packed in sealed packages, which prevent the loss of flavor.
There are 4 roasting methods:
Light: the color of the berries is light brown; they are not oily on the surface because the roasting process is not long enough for the oils to remain on the surface of the coffee bean; light roasting gives the beans a milder flavor
Medium: the color of the berries is brown, strongly aromatic and the surface is without oil spots; this type of frying is most preferred in North America, hence the name "American frying"; medium roast produces a well-defined and rich flavor
Medium-Intense: dark-colored berries with a slightly oily surface, slightly bitter taste and strong and distinct aroma
intense: the berries are glossy dark in color and have a strong bitter taste; the more intense the roasting, the less acidic the coffee and the lower the caffeine content; the vast majority of roasted coffee beans are currently dark in color.
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